These native American civilizations were the first to recognize the value of the cacao bean, using the pods as currency and serving the grainy crushed beans as a drink among the upper classes. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. The penultimate process is called conching.  In 1879, the texture and taste of chocolate was further improved when Rudolphe Lindt invented the conching machine.. Moving chocolate between temperature extremes, can result in an oily texture. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs.  SAID UK states that it is these child slaves who are likely to be working in "harsh and abusive" conditions for the production of chocolate, and an increasing number of health-food and anti-slavery organisations are highlighting and campaigning against the use of trafficking in the chocolate industry.  The Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards, and used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink.. The process of creating chocolate is complex. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect, hence the smooth feel in the mouth. Learn about the history, processing, and products of cocoa. Katz DL, Doughty K, Ali A. "Cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, sugar and milk powder. The earliest signs of use are associated with Olmec sites (within what would become Mexico’s post-colonial territory) suggesting consumption of chocolate beverages, dating from the 19th century BC. As a solid piece of chocolate, the cocoa butter fat particles are in a crystalline rigid structure that gives the chocolate its solid appearance. After the process is complete, the chocolate mass is stored in tanks heated to about 45 to 50 °C (113 to 122 °F) until final processing.. , Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. White chocolate is typically made from a blend of cocoa butter, milk solids, sugar, milk fat and lecithin-- a fatty emulsifier that holds it all together. A "cocoa product" is defined as a food product that is sourced from cocoa beans and contains "cocoa nibs, cocoa liquor, cocoa mass, unsweetened chocolate, bitter chocolate, chocolate liquor, cocoa, low-fat cocoa, cocoa powder, or low-fat cocoa powder". Cacao is the plant matter which … Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate (covering). Chocolate is the product of a long, complicated refining process that begins with the bean pods of the Theobroma cacao tree. Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter and vanilla are added. Cacao trees cannot tolerate a temperature lower than 15 °C (59 °F).. The liquor may also be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Chocolate is made from the seeds of the cocoa tree. The ingredients used are dependent on the type of chocolate being made. Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries, particularly Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply. A professional pastry chef, cookbook author, and writer, Elizabeth LaBau has published more than 600 articles on baking and candy making. The earliest signs of use are associated with Olmec sites (within what would become Mexico’s post-colonial territory) suggesting consumption of chocolate beverages, dating from the 19th century BC. cocoa powder). Some alcoholic liqueurs are flavoured with chocolate, such as chocolate liqueur and creme de cacao. which are coated in chocolate. The chocolate maker then grinds the cocoa nibs, the inside of the beans, which yields chocolate liquor. During the process of harvesting and drying the seeds, it is highly likely that a bug or two might make its way into chocolate, just like it’s highly likely that a bug or two has made it into orange juice or canned peaches. Additionally, chocolate is frequently stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper.  Chocolate and cocoa are under preliminary research to determine if consumption affects the risk of certain cardiovascular diseases or cognitive abilities.  Due to concerns about global warming effects on lowland climate in the narrow band of latitudes where cacao is grown (20 degrees north and south of the equator), the commercial company Mars, Incorporated and the University of California, Berkeley are conducting genomic research in 2017–18 to improve the survivability of cacao plants in hot climates..  Major chocolate producers, such as Nestlé, buy cocoa at commodities exchanges where Ivorian cocoa is mixed with other cocoa.. , While Columbus had taken cacao beans with him back to Spain, chocolate made no impact until Spanish friars introduced it to the Spanish court. The effectiveness of fair trade has been questioned. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization. In 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration established a standard for white chocolate as the "common or usual name of products made from cacao fat (i.e., cocoa butter), milk solids, nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and other safe and suitable ingredients, but containing no nonfat cacao solids".  The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs.  International attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, and continued exploitation of child labor. Bittersweet, semisweet, or dark chocolate. , Known as "Dutch cocoa", this machine-pressed chocolate was instrumental in the transformation of chocolate to its solid form when, in 1847, English chocolatier Joseph Fry discovered a way to make chocolate moldable when he mixed the ingredients of cocoa powder and sugar with melted cocoa butter.  The US Department of Labor formed the Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group as a public-private partnership with the governments of Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire to address child labor practices in the cocoa industry. Poorly tempered or untempered chocolate may have whitish spots on the dark chocolate part, called chocolate bloom; it is an indication that sugar or fat has separated due to poor storage. Question: So, it's that simple? Chocolate is one of the all-time favorite sweets which unit different people from various countries and gender. Chocolate is made from cocoa beans, the dried and fermented seeds of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao), a small, 4–8 m tall (15–26 ft tall) evergreen tree native to the deep tropical region of the Americas. Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17 °C (59 and 63 °F), with a relative humidity of less than 50%.  The word "chocolate" entered the English language from Spanish in about 1600.  One of the main tenets of fair trade is that farmers receive a fair price, but this does not mean that the larger amount of money paid for fair trade cocoa goes directly to the farmers. Semisweet chocolate is dark chocolate with low sugar content. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Chocolate may be a factor for heartburn in some people because one of its constituents, theobromine, may affect the esophageal sphincter muscle in a way that permits stomach acids to enter the esophagus. , Excessive consumption of large quantities of any energy-rich food, such as chocolate, without a corresponding increase in activity to expend the associated calories, can cause weight gain and possibly lead to obesity.  Cocoa beans were often used as currency. It is typically used in baking or other products to which sugar and other ingredients are added. ", "Why Chocolate Melts and Jet Planes Don't", "X-rays reveal how chocolate turns white", "Milkfat Fractions Help Beat Blooming Chocolate", "Chocolate: Types (Unsweetened, Bittersweet, Semisweet, Milk), Selection, and Storage", "Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review", "Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination", "Kidney Stones: Overview from the Nephrology Department", "Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis", "Intake of Flavonoid-Rich Wine, Tea, and Chocolate by Elderly Men and Women Is Associated with Better Cognitive Test Performance", "Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened Nutrition Facts & Calories", "Candies, chocolate, dark, 70–85% cacao solids Nutrition Facts & Calories", "Effects of Low Doses of Caffeine on Mood, Physiology and Mental Function - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov", "BELGIUM: Government encourages chocolate producers to support international quality label", "BBC News | EUROPE | Euro chocolate war ends", "Report: The Global Market for Chocolate to 2006", "Are We Actually Facing a Chocolate Shortfall? Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, and sugar. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration calls this "sweet chocolate", and requires a 15% concentration of chocolate liquor. , According to a 2005 study, the average lead concentration of cocoa beans is ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. A conche is a container filled with metal beads, which act as grinders.  In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice, vanilla, and honey. Various types of "blooming" effects can occur if chocolate is stored or served improperly.  Despite these efforts, goals to reduce child labor in West Africa by 70% before 2020 are frustrated by persistent poverty, absence of schools, expansion of cocoa farmland, and increased demand for cocoa. Chocolate is a natural product made of these ingredients: Chocolate Liquor: Cocoa beans with their shells removed that have been fermented, roasted and ground until they liquefy. The conching machine, so-called because the original designs resembled seashells, kneads and massages the chocolate mixture for a period of time ranging from several hours to several days.  Thirty percent of children under age 15 in sub-Saharan Africa are child laborers, mostly in agricultural activities including cocoa farming. , It is important to harvest the pods when they are fully ripe, because if the pod is unripe, the beans will have a low cocoa butter content, or sugars in the white pulp will be insufficient for fermentation, resulting in a weak flavor. , Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. Generally, the chocolate is first heated to 45 °C (113 °F) to melt all six forms of crystals. Yeasts produce ethanol, lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid, and acetic acid bacteria produce acetic acid. - facebook.com/buzzfeedtastyCredits: https://www.buzzfeed.com/bfmp/videos/38049MUSICLicensed via Audio Network , An early Classic-period (460–480 AD) Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte, and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken. Various methods and apparatuses for continuous flow tempering have been described by Aasted, Sollich and Buhler, three manufacturers of commercial chocolate equipment, with a focus now on energy efficiency. The origin of the Nahuatl word is uncertain, as it does not appear in any early Nahuatl source, where the word for chocolate drink is cacahuatl, "cacao water". Cacao trees are small, understory trees that need rich, well-drained soils. Traditionally, Africa and other developing countries received low prices for their exported commodities such as cocoa, which caused poverty to abound. Made from 100% cocoa liquor and bitter unless mixed with other ingredients. The caffè mocha is an espresso beverage containing chocolate. Hot chocolate starts in powder form (usually a blend of cocoa powder, sugar, and often includes dairy powder and flavorings or spices) and is typically made with water. Gayle: Yes! The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization). Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Brunberg in Porvoo, Finland is one of the most famous manufacturers of chocolate confectionery.. Using cocoa beans from the West Indies, the pair built their chocolate business, which is still in operation. As of 2017[update], there is no high-quality evidence that dark chocolate affects blood pressure significantly or provides other health benefits.. In fact, it’s a fascinating but labor-intensive process that will make you appreciate every sweet bite.  According to Sona Ebai, the former secretary-general of the Alliance of Cocoa Producing Countries: "I think child labor cannot be just the responsibility of industry to solve. Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are vulnerable to a variety of environmental threats and produce low yields of cocoa per tree.  Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects in humans, but the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, including dogs and cats.  After the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, chocolate was imported to Europe. Because the pods grow in all degrees of ripeness and at any location on the tree, most harvesting is done by hand with machetes. The finest, plain dark chocolate couverture contains at least 70% cocoa (both solids and butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. , Chocolate manufacturers produce a range of products from chocolate bars to fudge. The FDA only requires that 20% of white chocolate contains cocoa fat, aka cocoa butter. Fun Fact: Chocolate wasn't always made with milk. This pulp is sometimes used to make drinks or desserts, as it has a pleasant fruity taste with subtle chocolate flavor. They naturally grow within 20° of either side of the equator because they need about 2000 mm of rainfall a year, and temperatures in the range of 21 to 32 °C (70 to 90 °F). A 100-gram serving of milk chocolate supplies 540 calories. , In comparison to most foods, cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants. After conching, the chocolate is tempered in large machines that cool the chocolate to precise temperatures to produce shiny, smooth bars. Rowntree's of York set up and began producing chocolate in 1862, after buying out the Tuke family business. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. They say they make diverse sorts of it, some hot, some cold, and some temperate, and put therein much of that 'chili'; yea, they make paste thereof, the which they say is good for the stomach and against the catarrh.  Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875, Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could easily be molded into smooth shapes. Early forms of another genotype have also been found in what is now Venezuela. Once heated, the crystals of the polymorphic cocoa butter can break apart from the rigid structure and allow the chocolate to obtain a more fluid consistency as the temperature increases – the melting process. Food conglomerates Nestlé SA and Kraft Foods both have chocolate brands. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, but no cocoa solids. In 1815, Dutch chemist Coenraad van Houten introduced alkaline salts to chocolate, which reduced its bitterness. Chocolate begins with the harvest of the cacao pods. First, the pods are split open to reveal the cocoa beans instead, surrounded by the fruity pulp of the pod.  On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC. , The dried beans are then transported to a chocolate manufacturing facility. Pair milk chocolate with a cup of your favorite hot or iced coffee or tea for a sweet afternoon break. The newly mixed chocolate travels through a series of rollers to smooth out the texture before traveling to the conching machine. The more expensive chocolate tends to be processed longer and thus has a smoother texture and mouthfeel, regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added. Nestlé acquired Rowntree's in 1988 and now markets chocolates under their brand, including Smarties (a chocolate candy) and Kit Kat (a chocolate bar); Kraft Foods through its 1990 acquisition of Jacobs Suchard, now owns Milka and Suchard. The beans are cleaned (removing twigs, stones, and other debris), roasted, and graded. Dark chocolate contains up to 2-3 times more flavanol-rich cocoa solids than milk chocolate.  Vanilla, another indigenous American introduction, was also a popular additive, with pepper and other spices sometimes used to give the illusion of a more potent vanilla flavor. Chocolate liqueur can be served on its own (usually over ice) or mixed into other recipes for food or beverages. Dark chocolate requires only cocoa mass, cocoa butter, and sugar. High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours, and lesser grades about four to six hours. , Cacao, pronounced by the Olmecs as kakawa, dates to 1000 BC or earlier. Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas, but varying proportions of the different constituents are used. The beans and pulp are scraped from the pods and left to ferment in baskets for two to eight days. Ideally, chocolates are packed or wrapped, and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature. The terms drinking chocolate and hot chocolate are often used interchangeably, but the reality is the two drinks are quite different. Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are: Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate. Chocolate made from unfermented cocoa beans does not have the body and richness as chocolate made from fermented cocoa beans. Raw chocolate, often referred to as raw cacao, is always dark and a minimum of 75% cacao. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results. Antioxid Redox Signal.  Reports from 2014 indicate that "chocolate might be a significant source" of lead ingestion for children if consumption is high (with dark chocolate containing higher amounts), and "one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Baking soda is added to the remaining material, which is called "press cake." Thus, the most common and core ingredients of this culinary masterpiece include cacao beans and sugar. After fermentation, the beans must be quickly dried to prevent mold growth. Representing only 5% of all cocoa beans grown as of 2008[update], criollo is the rarest and most expensive cocoa on the market, and is native to Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern tier of South American states. In particular, continuous tempering machines are used in large volume applications. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept in a liquid state by frictional heat. At this temperature, the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate. , One tablespoonful (5 grams) of dry unsweetened cocoa powder has 12.1 mg of caffeine and a 25-g single serving of dark chocolate has 22.4 mg of caffeine. Cocoa is the key ingredient in chocolate and chocolate confections. The chocolate is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. The first step to making any kind of chocolate or chocolate derivative, including white chocolate, is to obtain cocoa beans, which must undergo fermentation, drying, and roasting. Hershey’s chocolate is made from cacao beans, milk, sugar, and cocoa butter, but the actual chocolate-making process begins long before that.  It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable in baking. Chocolate is made from cacao beans — or rather seeds — from the Theobroma cacao tree.  The word entered Spanish from the word xocolātl in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs.  The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the results of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process. Unsweetened chocolate. European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking chocolate. According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, a "chocolate product" is a food product that is sourced from at least one "cocoa product" and contains at least one of the following: "chocolate, bittersweet chocolate, semi-sweet chocolate, dark chocolate, sweet chocolate, milk chocolate, or white chocolate". , The new craze for chocolate brought with it a thriving slave market, as between the early 1600s and late 1800s, the laborious and slow processing of the cacao bean was manual. The flavor of criollo is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavor, but rich in "secondary" notes of long duration.  The term "chocolatier", for a chocolate confection maker, is attested from 1888..  Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first European to encounter it, as the frothy drink was part of the after-dinner routine of Montezuma. The beans with their surrounding pulp are removed from the pods and placed in piles or bins, allowing access to micro-organisms so fermentation of the pectin-containing material can begin. This provides the best appearance and texture and creates the most stable crystals, so the texture and appearance will not degrade over time.  Europe accounts for 45% of the world's chocolate revenue, and the US spent $20 billion in 2013. (A.D.) – Obtaining Cacao", "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. There, it quickly became a court favorite. In 2009, Salvation Army International Development (SAID) UK stated that 12,000 children have been trafficked on cocoa farms in the Ivory Coast of Africa, where half of the world's chocolate is made. Manufacturers may add other fats, sugars, and milk, all of which increase the caloric content of chocolate. Without fermentation, the beans would be too astringent and bitter to enjoy. Cocoa growers object to allowing the resulting food to be called "chocolate", due to the risk of lower demand for their crops. The ingredients are blended into a … The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it then turns red. As of 2017, approximately 2.1 million children in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire were involved in farming cocoa, carrying heavy loads, clearing forests, and being exposed to pesticides. Within about a hundred years, chocolate established a foothold throughout Europe. But it’s a far cry to say that chocolate is made from bug legs. Or, combine popcorn with almonds and milk chocolate to enhance a … If refrigerated or frozen without containment, chocolate can absorb enough moisture to cause a whitish discoloration, the result of fat or sugar crystals rising to the surface. Until the 16th century, no European had ever heard of the popular drink from the Central American peoples. Conching is the final step in determining the ultimate flavor and texture of the chocolate.  This British style of chocolate has sometimes been pejoratively referred to as "vegelate".. Although visually unappealing, chocolate suffering from bloom is safe for consumption and taste unaffected. The cacao tree produces pods all year long, so a typical tree would have pods in every stage of ripeness, from the earliest flowering bud to the most mature pod ready to be harvested. , White chocolate, although similar in texture to that of milk and dark chocolate, does not contain any cocoa solids that impart a dark color. , Cacao pods are harvested by cutting them from the tree using a machete, or by knocking them off the tree using a stick. At this point, the chocolate process differs depending on the recipe and formulation of the manufacturer.  Subsequently, his chocolate factory, Fry's of Bristol, England, began mass-producing chocolate bars, Fry's Chocolate Cream, launched in 1866, and they became very popular. , The Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, and chocolate drinks specifically with sacrificial human blood. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor.  Most attention on this subject has focused on West Africa, which collectively supplies 69 percent of the world's cocoa, and Côte d'Ivoire in particular, which supplies 35 percent of the world's cocoa. The Spaniards, both men, and women, that are accustomed to the country, are very greedy of this Chocolaté. To make chocolate, cocoa farmers crack open the pods, scoop out the seeds, ferment them and dry them. Trinitario originated in Trinidad after an introduction of forastero to the local criollo crop. After the beans arrive at the manufacturing facility, they are roasted to bring out the most intense chocolate flavors and colors. It was still served as a beverage, but the Spanish added sugar, as well as honey (the original sweetener used by the Aztecs for chocolate), to counteract the natural bitterness. It is unadulterated chocolate: the pure, ground, roasted chocolate beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. The beans are shipped to factories all over the world, where manufacturers inspect and clean them, then roast and grind them into a dense liquid called chocolate liquor. An investigation in high-priced chocolate", "Chocolate industry avoids collapse as genome published", "Chocolate is on track to go extinct in 40 years", "Criollo Chocolate: Efficient Food of the Gods", "Sensational Chocolates: Discover the Intense Robust flavor of 100% 'Grand Cru' Chocolate", "Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity", "2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food", "Division 4: Cocoa and Chocolate Products", "Conching: Crucial Step in Chocolate's Flavor and Texture? To distinguish between different types of bloom, one can rub the surface of the chocolate lightly, and if the bloom disappears, it is fat bloom.  Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade. , Production costs can be decreased by reducing cocoa solids content or by substituting cocoa butter with another fat. There are numerous smaller markets in South America and Africa, hence the smooth feel the... Which increase the caloric content of chocolate has sometimes been pejoratively referred to as vegelate... Makes Baker 's chocolate, such as milk, fruits and nuts, made... Flavor and texture and creates the most stable crystals, so what is now Venezuela had ever heard the... That need rich, well-drained soils ground, roasted, and writer, Elizabeth LaBau has published more 600. 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